Transformation Through Training • Issue No: 11 • November 2018 • 9 and conducted, it is prudent to provide some background on the mission itself. NATO has been leading a peace support operation in Kosovo (KFOR) since June 1999 in support of wider international efforts to build peace and stability in the area. KFOR supports the development of professional, democratic and multi- ethnic security structures in Kosovo. This includes NATO’s support for the ongoing development of the Kosovo Security Force (KSF) and the Ministry of KSF (MKSF) through the provision of advice, training and capacity-building at brigade level and above. The Kosovo NATO Advisory Liaison Team (NALT) was established in August 2016. Commanded by a German Brigadier General, the NALT is composed of 41 personnel (21 Advisors and 20 Command and Support Staff). Functionally, the advisors are grouped into three sections: Strategy and Plans, Operations, and Support. NALT advisors are expected to provide advice at the strategic, operational and tactical levels. NALT is a relatively new organization and was formed by combining and streamlining the functions of the NATO Advisory Team (NAT) which had provided advice at the Ministerial level and the NATO Liaison and Advisory Team (NLAT) which focused its advisory efforts at the KSF brigade level and above. The mission of the NALT is to enable NATO to support further development of the Security Institutions in Kosovo providing advice and support focused on capacity building, education and training coordination. An interesting point to note at this juncture is that Commander (COM) KFOR does not command the NALT. The NALT receives direction and guidance from the NATO International Staff – Operations (IS Ops), while COM KFOR reports to Joint Force Command – Naples. Despite the two distinct lines of command, these organizationsdocontinuouslyliaisetoensure that advice provided by “NATO” is consistent in its message to the MKSF and KSF. On 19 January 2009, the KSF was established and reached Full Operational Capability on 9 July 2013. Concurrently, the NAT and Military Civilian Advisory Division (MCAD) were formed to assist with the KSF build-up. The MKSF/KSF is a relatively small force, comprising 2,500 full- time personnel and 800 reservists. Given the political situation in the region, the MKSF/ KSF was not formed as a military force but rather a lightly armed formation whose main tasks are to provide assistance to civil authorities in areas such as responding to natural disasters and emergencies, conducting explosive ordinance disposal and other crisis response operations. It is no secret that the KSF harbours future aspirations to transform itself into a Kosovo Army and this particular point is one in which the NALT Advisor must delicately negotiate during interactions with his Kosovar counterpart.