30 • Transformation Through Training • Issue No: 11 • November 2018 to transform and to increase their level of interoperability. Creating the ACT opened a new chapter – the NATO transformation. Three new institutions that operate within ACT training network were established: the Joint Analysis and Lessons Learned Centre (JALLC) in Lisbon, Portugal (2002), the Joint Warfare Centre in Stavanger (JWC), Norway (2003) and the Joint Force Training Centre (JFTC) in Bydgoszcz, Poland (2004). JFTC was officially opened in June 2004. The Bydgoszcz training centre is Alliance’s first institution located in Central- Eastern Europe. It is a pioneering NATO multinational centre that operates in a country that joined the Organization in 1999. Pursuant to the agreement, the Centre, having received the status of an allied headquarters has been subject to NATO common funding. JFTC focuses on training division, brigade and battalion staffs and presents doctrines, technologies or operational concepts that take into account Alliance’s latest experience to officers from various nations. In the following years JFTC supported numerous training for NATO Response Forces (NRF) and organized many conferences and seminars. Operational Mentor and Liaison Teams (OMLT) training was the first one organized for the Afghan National Army and Afghan National Police, especially for their leadership. Only in 2012 6880 participants attended training events organized by JFTC. The institution systematically adjusted to the new requirements – the end of the ISAF combat mission in 2014, launching the Resolute Support in 2015 or intensification of the NATO – Georgia military exercises (since autumn 2016). Decisions taken during the latest NATO summits indicate that the role of training is growing and thus the interest in JFTC as a venue for meetings within the Alliance command structure is growing as well. Location of JFTC in the territory of Poland may prove that the country’s attainment in NATO was recognized. For Poland it is of prestigious significance – it created an occasion to create new forms of cooperation with other countries and access to the latest training methods. And Bydgoszcz has become an international centre for armed forces training and development of warfare tactics. The Bydgoszcz Joint Force Training Centre is one of only two training centres of Allied Forces in the world - the other one is in Stavanger, Norway. What is more, Bydgoszcz is the only city in Poland where four NATO institutions are located: 1) Joint Force Training Centre (JFTC), 2) 3th NATO Signal Battalion, 3) NATO Military Police Centre of Excellence (MP COE) 4) NATO Force Integration Unit (NFIU). 3rd NATO Signal Battalion located in Bydgoszcz is another element of NATO structures in Poland. Location of this entity in Poland aims at increasing NATO capabilities within the area of mobile communication. 3th NSB main tasks include supporting the communication system for joint defense activities. This unit is a support element for both NATO missions as well as exercises and training organized by the Headquarters12 . The Signal Battalion located in Poland is one of the three battalions that form NATO Command Structure. The Battalion consists of the command, the support company and 6 Mobile Communications Modules. The command, the support element and a mobile communications module are located in Bydgoszcz. The remaining 5 modules are located in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Lithuania, Hungary and in Turkey. The Forward Support Point East - FSPE13 provides logistic support for 3th NSB. Location of 3th NSB in the territory of Poland gives Polish soldiers, who serve there, access to the latest CIS technologies and creates conditions for educating communications, IT, logistics and planning specialists14 . During the Prague NATO Summit in 2002 it was decided to create NATO Centres of Excellence (COE) in order to develop new capabilities of the Alliance. COEs support the Alliance transformation processes. They enjoy the status of an independent International Military Organization that fulfills tasks assigned by HQ SACT. That means that organizationally, every centre15 is independent from a Framework Nation and NATO due to the fact that it is not a part of the command chain of the Framework Nation or the organization. Its mission is to support the Alliance in the development of interoperability standards and capabilities of NATO Military Police, concept evaluation and testing through experimenting and cooperation in doctrine development as well as supporting processes of lessons learned analyses from NATO operations. The Centre also prepares reports on military police activities, in accordance with the Alliance strategic guidance16 . The Bydgoszcz centre has been training officers aspiring to service in NATO military police units for four years. In 2017 the entity received the Quality Assurance Unconditional Accreditation valid from 24 January 2016 till 24 January 2023 and as a result the Bydgoszcz centre joined (as the first and the only one located in Poland) the narrow circle of certified international institutions that offer educational and training capacities that meet NATO standards17 . During the Wales NATO Summit in September 2014 Alliance leaders decided to strengthen the collective defense. To achieve that, they approved the Readiness Action Plan (RAP). A two-year program is a complex resources package created to react to changed security conditions in the eastern and south borders of the Alliance. It also assumed that the current NRF would be replaced with the so called “spearhead”, or the VJTF and the Initial Follow-On Forces Group (IFFG). The VJTF are expected to be ready to operate just a few days after they receive orders to deploy. This is why NFIUs are created that will deal with rapid redeployment of NATO forces into endangered areas. These forces should count up to 5,000 troops able to react rapidly – even in 48 hours – in case of a potential threat. The Noble Jump executed in June 2015 in the Polish training fields of Żagań and Świętoszów was the first test or the spearhead. The decision regarding location of NFIU was taken by the North Atlantic Council after a military evaluation was carried out and host nations were invited. The NFIU was located in Bydgoszcz, Poland, in September 2015 and became fully operational before the Warsaw NATO Summit in 2016. NFIUs are located in Sofia, Bulgaria, Tallin, Estonia, Riga, Latvia, Vilnius, Lithuania, Bydgoszcz, Poland, Bucharest, Romania, Szekesfehervar, Hungary and Bratislava, Slovakia. The Spearhead Force is their core and its leading elements will be fully operational within 48 hours18 .