Transformation Through Training • Issue No: 11 • November 2018 • 23 basis for development of directions and guidance considering the planning at the strategic level. The next step is the development of a strategic concept and an operation plan within the collective planning process. NATO Crisis Response Process (NCRP) consists of six phases: 1. Situation Awareness, 2. Strategic Assessment, 3. Develop Military Response Options, 4a. Strategic Concept of Operations (CONOPS) Development, 4b. Strategic Operation Plan (OPLAN) Development and Force Generation, 5. Execution/OPLAN Review, 6. Transition6 . PSYOPS planning cells participate in all phases of the above mentioned process, but as they are characterized by unique analytical capabilities (e.g. Target Audience Analysis), the cells may be remarkably useful during phase 1 and 2. The initial phases of the planning process are connected with the undertakings performed by Strategic Operations Planning Group (SOPG) and include considering options of pre-approved or preventive crisis response measures encompassing, inter alia, PSYOPS. Operational level commands constantly build their situational awareness in a definite area of interest. It complements strategic assessment of the situation and all the received tasks thus enabling the defining of what should be achieved, in what conditions and constraints. Taking the above into account, operational level commands focus on determination of ways to adjust their actions to the overall operational project and then they initiate development of a concept and a detailed operation plan. The process goes along with tactical and strategic level planning activities. It informs about activities and enables data collection extracted out of their outcomes. The Operational-Level Planning Process includes 8 stages: 1. Initiating the Operational-Level Planning Process, 2. Problem and Mission Analysis, 3. Courses of Action (COAs) Development, 4. COAs Analysis, 5. COAs Validation and Comparison, 6. Commander’s COA Decision, 7. Operational CONOPS and Plan Development, 8. Campaign Assessment and Plan Review/Revision7 . The main goal of the PSYOPS Subject Matter Experts’ (SMEs) participation in the Operational-Level Planning Process is to advise and support the planning team. Their tasks include: initiation and conduct of PSYOPS assessment, support for development and update of military response option proposition, determination of specialized resources and funds required for PSYOPS, participation in mission analysis and development of Commander’s Critical Information Requirements (CCIRs). Moreover, PSYOPS SMEs are responsible for preparation of planning directions and guidance. PSYOPS planners contribute to development of COAs and operation concept/plan. Their support is necessary during analysis of other functional areas and determination of requirements considering assets and capabilities. Operational level PSYOPS personnel develop Fragmentary Orders (FRAGOs) for PSYOPS units and verify PSYOPS plans including Support Plan (SUPLAN). Proper exploitation of PSYOPS capabilities is possible only when these activities are planned appropriately. Therefore PSYOPS planners should have a thorough knowledge and command of the allied planning tools and related, applied by NATO, policy and doctrine. They should also know the specific nature of joint and combined operation planning, tactics, techniques and procedures, PSYOPS force structure and capabilities availability. Planning any activities, including PSYOPS, is not feasible without access to information resources. In case of PSYOPS, the resources include information about customs, rules of social interaction, values and goals of selected and approved Target Audience (TA). Both operational and tactical NATO PSYOPS plans and programmes need to be in line with the directions and guidance received from the strategic level and lead to precisely defined psychological effects. The effects, Target Audiences, themes to avoid and other restraints/ constraints are defined by operational level commanders (JFCs) and submitted to Strategic Commanders for approval. Strategic level PSYOPS SMEs participate in the development of information strategy defining the adequate narrative and verify, approve and include the effects, TAs, themes to avoid and other constraints/ restraints in strategic plans. The plans are then presented to the North Atlantic Council for approval and become a part of the Strategic Commander’s operation plan. The remaining elements of PSYOPS planning process, including Target Audience Analysis (TAA), message themes and contents are developed at the operational level. Themes and contents should be culturally and socially relevant. Therefore, the following aspects should be taken into consideration: gender and social roles, scope of social media application for the purpose of social communication conducted by TAs. Building PSYOPS capabilities for a given operation is usually initiated by Strategic Commander’s operation concept release. The concept determines the mission, general force requirement and requirements considering specialized PSYOPS-related functions and capabilities. The requirements are the basis for determination of detailed PSYOPS cell structures, their role and place in the plan of deployment in the The paper presents the Information Process, its preparation, conduct and measure of effectiveness based on the example of NATO PsychologicalOperations(PSYOPS). It depicts the NATO Operations Planning Process and Operational- Level Planning Process. Theoretical analysis of the InformationProcessiscomplemented by the author’s proposition of the procedural integration including preparation, conduct and measure of effectiveness in regard to PSYOPS. It is illustrated with an example of the Information Process elements identified during the operations of the Polish Military Contingent (PMC) deployed in Iraq from 2003 through 2008.