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TransformationThroughTrainingIssueNo6December201427thebattlefieldsofSyria.Section2OurwaronterrorbeginswithAlQaedabutitdoesnotendthere.Itwillnotenduntileveryterroristgroupofglobalreachhasbeenfoundstoppedanddefeated.GeorgeW.Bush2001Themainoutbreaksofterrorismupto1945demonstratehowinthecontextofwarthepoliticaleconomicandsocialforceswereasmuchacatalystforterrorismbetween1914and1945astheyaretoday.Itwasnotaquestionofthemhavingoperatedintandemoralignmentwithhistoricalforcesterrorismhasmalleableproteanpropertiesthatenableittobreedinsymbiosisonceittakesrootandthiscanbeseeninthefactthatofallthewarsofthisperiodthepoliticalviolencecontainedelementsofsecondthirdandfourthgenerationwarfare.Theterrorismwasrandomvariedchangeableandabletomovefromonesetofcircumstancestoanotherinmultiplesustainedforms.Theimportanceofthisperiodisthattheseforcessustainedterrorismandcarrieditbeyondtheparametersandboundariesofpreviousmanifestations.InshortasRichardEnglishargued2009ithadmetamorphosedintoanacceptablesub-speciesofwarfare.Muchthatisevidentinterrorismitsunpredictabilityofincidenceitspsychological-symbolicdimensionitsultimatelypower-politicalmotivationisalsopresentinmuchformalwarfare.RichardEnglishGiventheproximityofthecombatantstocentresofpopulationandtheircollectiveengagementinwarthedistinctionsbetweencombatantsandnon-combatantsbegantoblurandwar-crimesagainstciviliansbecamecommon.Thislethalmixtureofregularandirregularwarfarebecameakeyfeatureoftheperiodasthepoliticaleconomicandsocialforcesdeterioratedandiscrucialtounderstandinghowarelationshipbetweenwarandterrorismcandevelopoutofseeminglynothing.PoliticalviolenceinPalestineisaclassicexampleofthisandarevoltinwhichthewidercontextofwarverymuchdetermineditsnaturetoterrorizeWilson2013.AttheoutbreakofWorldWarIIforexamplealthoughmostofIrgunsupportedtheAlliessporadicattemptsatmasscasualtyattackscontinuedagainsttheBritishArmy.IrgunsowncelebratoryattitudetoterrorclearlyowedmuchtooldereasternEuropeanrevolutionarytraditionsbuttheeasewithwhichitembracedmass-casualtyattacksstilldefieseasyexplanationWilson2013.InGermanywhilstterrorismhadtakenonaparamilitaryoutlooktoitsactivitiesinthelatethirtiesandboththeriseofstate-terrorismandtheMolotov-RibbentroppacthadeffectivelyrenderedanyleftwingterrorismthatremainedredundanttherearestillexamplesofterroristactsthemostfamousbeingGeorgeElsersattempttoassassinateHitlerin1939OperationSparkin1940bytheSchwarzeKapelleandOperationValkyriein1944byColonelClausVonStauffenberg.Inalltherewereover40attemptsthatinvolvedshootingsbombingsandevenanattackonhispersonalplane.ResistancetotheNazishasoftenbeenoverlookedbutitmustberememberedthataslateas1933theSPDhadoveramillionmembersandsome5millionvotes.Tocompoundthisbetween1933andthefallofNaziGermanymorethan3millionGermanshadbeenimprisonedforpoliticalreasonsandover70000executed.LoneWolfsattacksandattemptsbytheWiderstandtoforceacoupalsosuggestspowersinplaythatshapedpatternsofpoliticalviolencebynon-statecombatantsandcivilians-forcesandactorsthatareasviabletodayastheywere70yearsago.Furthermoreasthepoliticalviolenceshiftedaccordingtothefluidityofthepoliticaleconomicandsocialcontextitcanbeseenthatneitheralackofterrorismnoraneradicationofterrorismcomputestoanendinterrorism.KilmainhamGaolin1916andLidicein1942areexamplesinthattheformerwasfollowedbythekillingof14BritishofficersinDublinon21November1920andtheTreatyayearlaterandthelatterbythePragueUprisingandtheexpulsionandmassacreofGermansfromtheSudetenlandin1945-aptlynamedthefinalsolutionoftheGermanquestion.OtherreasonsforalessthanovertpresenceofresistanceacrossmuchofoccupiedEuropewerethatcounter-insurgencyoperationshadevolvedfromthedisproportionateover-killofthoseinWorldWarItooutrightslaughterinWorldWarIIandthisbroughtlittlecommunitysupport.AsGildea2003explainsThedesiretopraisetheresistancebecauseithadliberatedandredeemedFrancewasundercutbythelocalexperienceofbrutalreprisalswhichthreatenedtodriveawedgebetweenarmedresistersandlocalcommunities.InadditionresistancemovementsinFranceandGreecewereoftensplinteredideologicallysomemerelywaiting-outthewaroratwarwitheachotheranditwasprimarilyonlyinTitosYugoslaviaandtheeastthatpartisangroupswereabletoengageeffectivelyandbynecessitatinganeedforoccupyingAxisForcesprovideanyrealtacticalsupportfortheAlliedForces.TwootherissuesthatremaincontroversialbutthathavebeencomprehensivelyaddressedinscholarlyliteraturearewhetherornottheAlliedbombingofGermanyandJapanoreventheUKsSOEoperationsconstitutedterrorism.WithregardstothelattertherelevanceisrevealinginthattheBritishemployedandimportedlessonslearnedfromitscounter-insurgencyinPalestineandIrelandtooccupiedEuropeandgroupssuchasENOSISappliedtheirexperiencesofoccupationandcivilwar