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TransformationThroughTrainingIssueNo6December201413frictionandchanceasthetwofundamen-talmanifestationsofthatunpredictability.Inthisregarddialecticlogicisapro-cessusedtoovercometensionssuchasthosebetweentheoperationalcommanderinten-tionandthetacticalcommandersadherencetothemissionstheyhavebeenassignedorbetweenthepositiveaspectofouraimandthenegativeoneoffrustratingtherivalsefforttobringdefeatuponus8.Aprocesstoovercomebasednotonforcingwarintooneofthosepolesbutonproducingabet-tersynthesiswherebothpolesresultinte-gratedinamanoeuvrethattakesadvantageofthedisproportionateeffectsorunpredict-ablesituationsgeneratedbynon-linearities.Thisbettersynthesisisanall-encompassingoroverallresultthatgoesbeyondwhatcouldbeexpectedfromthesumofitsparts.Itisreflectedinaspectssuchascombinedarmscombatamalgama-tionofthevariousformsofwarfareoffensiveanddefensivecloseanddeepoperationsetc.theinteractionbetweenattritionandmanoeuvreortheoperationalmomentum9.Thefirstmanifestationsofthisdialec-ticlogicwereconceivedbySovietmilitarythinkersasaresultofanalysingtheirexperi-enceduringtheRussiancivilconfrontationawarofwidespacesandboldmanoeuversfromtheperspectiveoftheMarxistrevolu-tionthatontheonehandlinkeddeeppen-etrationwithenemydislocationandpoliticalsubversionontheotherproposeddialecticasthesupremelawofhistoricalprogress10.Thisanalysisresultedinasystemicandnon-linearconceptionofwarthatwasnamedoperationalart.Thistermwasintroducedin1923byaSovietGeneralandthinkerAleksandrSvechininaseriesoflecturesgivenatthenewlyfoundedSovietGeneralStaffAcademy11.Hedefineditasthetotalityofmanoeuversandbattlesinagivenpartofatheatreofmilitaryactiondirectedtowardtheachievementofacommongoalsetasfinalinthegivenperiodofthecampaign12.AlthoughStalinpurgeof1937-1938eliminatedagenerationofoperationalofficerswhohadformulatedthetheoriesofdeepbattleanddeepoperation13operationalartbecameagainacriticaltopicintheSovietstudyofwarinthelate1960s14.ParadoxicallyontheothersideoftheIronCurtainAmericanthinkersweregraduallyrediscoveringthislogicduringtheintellectualcrisisthatfol-lowedtheVietnamWaranditwasfinallyestablishedasthefoundationoftheU.S.militarydoctrineatthebeginningofthe1980sunderthenameofAir-LandBattle15.Itiseasytounderstandthegapthatseparatesthislogicfromtheoutcomeone.Meanwhiledialecticlogicisalogicoftensionandambiguityasatangledynamicsbetweencontrariesandofcontemplativecharacterasanattitudetoconfrontarealitydrivenbyfric-tionuncertaintyanddissymmetryoutcomelogicisalogicofdeductionsandcertaintiesthatvisualizesthemilitarysituationasasystemofsystemsandconsidersthatactingagainstaphysicalpartoftheenemysystemdesiredeffectsinthedomainofhumanactivitycanbeachieved.Theyassumethatallelementsofthesituationcansomehowbepreciselydeterminedandnomistakeswillbemade.Theenemyisessentiallypassiveandwillbehaveinawaythatwillensurefriendlysuccess16.DesignLogicLastlyIwillgivesomenotesonthedesignlogicthathasbeenadoptedintheefforttoconductoperationsinchaoticsitua-tionstypicaloffailedornon-existentstateswhereitisnoteasytoidentifytheenemyandwherethefightgoesonamongstthepeopleatermintroducedbyaBritishGeneralRupertSmithtorefertothosewarsinwhichthepeopleinthestreetsandhousesandfieldsallthepeopleanywherearethebattlefield17.Thislogicisbasedfirstonthedevel-opmentofrepresentationsofthatchaoticcom-plexitywhicharecalleddesignsasabasisthatmakesitpossibletoagreeoncoursesofactionwhiletheothertheidealandprecari-ousnatureofsuchrepresentationsisassumedsotheplanningcellisconstantlyworkinginitsreformulationsuchawaythatdecisionsremainrelevantinrelationtowhatthesituationdemands.Thisdynamicsismaterializedinaprocessofframingandreframingwherefram-ingmeansbuildingaperspectivefromwhichanamorphousill-definedproblematicsitua-tioncanbemadesenseofandactedupon18.Andreframingshiftsattentionfromtryingtosolvethecurrentproblemrighttoaskingwhethertherightproblemisbeingsolved19.InshortdesignisalogicthatproposesaprudentuseofthenotionofsystemwhilePhotosCourtesyofMiguelRuizdelArbolMoro